## Category Archives: MonoGame

### Lerp Camera Motion Smoothing Tutorial and Example Code

Recently I’ve been revisiting at the way the camera works in Jetboard Joust (wishlist on Steam here!) something that has been a continual thorn in my side throughout the project.

When researching how to make the camera movement better I came across many references to Lerp smoothing but I found few, if any, detailed explanations as to how this works in practice and (particularly) ways to get around its significant limitations. Cue this post, by the end of which we’ll have a class that’ll move an object smoothly towards a target point and ‘brake’ so it reaches it exactly no matter how often and by how much the target is changed.

I’m just concentrating on one axis of movement here for simplicity but this approach can easily be applied to 2D or 3D vectors. For those of you with short attention spans you can just download the final class here.

So… Lerp is a quasi-acronym for ‘linear interpolation’ and used to create smooth movement between two points. It’s often used to smooth out camera movement but can equally be applied to sprites or anything else in 2D or 3D space. The basic equation for Lerp is very simple, it takes a position and target, works out the difference between them and then returns a value a specified amount along that path. Only values >0 and <1 are generally meaningful.

```public static float Lerp(float position, float target, float amount)
{
float d = (value2 - value1) * amount;
return value1 + d;
}
```

If you are using this equation to move an object and each frame call it with the object’s current position (keeping the other values the same) the object will move a smaller distance each frame which results in a ‘slowing down’ effect as the objects reaches its target. Here’s an example of this type of motion applied to a sprite. In this case the sprite is moving approx 480 pixels at a frame rate of 60fps with a Lerp value of 0.025.

Basic Lerp Smoothing

Now this looks pretty good already but, as you’ve probably figured out, there are issues. The first one is that using this approach the object will never actually reach its destination – this can result in a slightly jerky looking motion as it reaches the end of its trajectory as well as presenting potential issues if you want to do something when the destination is reached.

One way of resolving this is to implement a minimum amount of movement per frame. This can be anything you want but for many applications it makes sense for this to be one pixel.

Here’s a simple ‘Lerper’ class that implements this – each frame the amount of movement (LerpVelocity) is calculated and, if the absolute value of this is less the minimum velocity we clamp it at the minimum velocity. Of course this means that the object might now be in danger of moving beyond its target point so we check for this at well and make sure it doesn’t.

```public static float Lerp(float position, float target, float amount)
public class Lerper
{
public Lerper()
{
Amount = 0.025f;
}

// Returns the amount of movement at this stage of the lerp
private float LerpVelocity(float position, float target)
{
return (target - position) * Amount;
}

public float Lerp(float position, float target)
{
float v = LerpVelocity(position, target);

// If this is less than the minimum velocity then
// clamp at minimum velocity
if ( Math.Abs(v) 0) ? MinVelocity : 0 - MinVelocity;

position += v;
// Now account for potential overshoot and clamp to target if necessary
if ( (v= target))
{
position = target;
}
return position;
}

public float Amount
{
get;
set;
}

public float MinVelocity
{
get;
set;
}
}
```

Here’s an example of this in action. As you can see it looks much better…

Lerp With Minimum Velocity Applied

Still we have limitations though if we’re looking for really smooth movement. The next glaringly obvious one is that Lerp is ‘ease out’ only, the object will be moving fastest at the start of the sequence which makes it look like it’s being fired from a slingshot rather than smoothly accelerating from rest.

To resolve this I’m going to apply an ‘Acceleration’ property to my Lerper class. This ensures that, if the object is increasing in speed, the increase doesn’t exceed a specified amount. This requires a variable to store the amount of movement each frame.

```public class Lerper
{
private float previous_velocity;

public Lerper()
{
Amount = 0.025f;
Acceleration = float.MaxValue;
}

// Returns the amount of movement at this staget of the lerp
private float LerpVelocity(float position, float target)
{
return (target - position) * Amount;
}

// Returns the next position with lerp smoothing
public float Lerp(float position, float target)
{
// get the amount to move
float v = LerpVelocity(position, target);
// don't allow increases in velocity beyond the specifed acceleration
if ( v>0 && previous_velocity>=0 && v-previous_velocity>Acceleration )
{
v = previous_velocity + Acceleration;
}
else if (v < 0 && previous_velocity  Acceleration)
{
v = previous_velocity - Acceleration;
}
// If this is less than the minimum velocity then
// clamp at minimum velocity
if ( Math.Abs(v) 0) ? MinVelocity : 0 - MinVelocity;
}
// Remember the previous velocity
previous_velocity = v;

// Adjust the position based on the new velocity
position += v;
// Now account for potential overshoot
if ( (v= target))
{
position = target;
}
return position;
}

public float Amount
{
get;
set;
}

public float MinVelocity
{
get;
set;
}

public float Acceleration
{
get;
set;
}
}
```

Here’s an example of this in action – now we have a nice ‘ease in’ to our Lerp motion. Here I’m using an acceleration value of 0.25f.

Lerp With Maximum Acceleration ‘Ease In’ Applied

There’s one other problem I’m going to address though. This ‘ease in’ effect works nicely if the object is initially at rest or moving in the same direction but if the object had previously been moving in the opposite direction we’re still going to get a nasty jolt. Here’s an example where I’m changing the destination to the opposite side before the previous Lerp has reached the end of its trajectory.

Sudden Changes In Direction Result in A Nasty Jolt

So we’re going to check for this in the code and again apply a maximum amount by which the velocity can change each frame. Remember that because we’re changing direction the absolute value of the current velocity at the point of change is the sum of the absolute value of both the current and previous velocities, ie a change in direction from 10 to -10 would result in a new velocity of -20.

A side-effect of this is that the object will probably end up moving away from the target until it’s gathered enough momentum to change direction. As the code that clamps to the target position assumes we are moving towards the target we have to max out the target value if this happens.

We also have a special case check for our minimum velocity here as we need to make sure that if the minimum velocity is applied its applied in the direction that moves towards the target (otherwise the object could get stuck moving in the wrong direction).

```public class Lerper
{
private float previous_velocity;

public Lerper()
{
Amount = 0.025f;
Acceleration = float.MaxValue;
MinVelocity = 0;
}

// Returns the amount of movement at this staget of the lerp
private float LerpVelocity(float position, float target)
{
return (target - position) * Amount;
}

// Returns the next position with lerp smoothing
public float Lerp(float position, float target)
{
// get the amount to move
float v = LerpVelocity(position, target);
// don't allow increases in velocity beyond the specifed acceleration (ease in)
if ( v>0 && previous_velocity>=0 && v-previous_velocity>Acceleration )
{
v = previous_velocity + Acceleration;
}
else if  (v  Acceleration )
{
v = previous_velocity - Acceleration;
// we might actually end up moving away from the target
// here in which case we adjust the target so we don't get
// clamped to it later
if (v  0 && previous_velocity  Acceleration )
{
v = previous_velocity + Acceleration;
// we might actually end up moving away from the target
// here in which case we adjust the target so we don't get
// clamped to it later
if (v > 0-MinVelocity)
v = MinVelocity;
else
target = float.MinValue;
}

// If this is less than the minimum velocity then
// clamp at minimum velocity
if ( Math.Abs(v) 0) ? MinVelocity : 0 - MinVelocity;
}
// Remember the previous velocity
previous_velocity = v;

// Adjust the position based on the new velocity
position += v;
// Now account for potential overshoot and clamp to target if necessary
if ( (v= target))
{
position = target;
}
return position;
}

public virtual void OnTarget(){}

public float Amount
{
get;
set;
}

public float MinVelocity
{
get;
set;
}

public float Acceleration
{
get;
set;
}
}
```

Here’s what happens when you suddenly change the Lerp target with this code applied – as you can see we now have a nice smooth movement no matter how often we change the target value.

Lerp With Maximum Acceleration ‘Ease In’ Applied

And that’s pretty much it. You can download the final class file here – in the final version I’ve also added a MaxVelocity property, a delegate to be called when the object reaches its destination, and tidied up the code so its not quite so verbose.

If you are in the process of coding a camera for a 2D game I highly recommend you check out this excellent article.

If you are looking for something to move smoothly between two points over a specified number of frames then you’re probably better off using some kind of tweening rather than Lerp. Check out Robert Penner’s excellent tweening/easing functions or the ‘smoothstep’ algorithm approaches described here.

These articles take a lot of time and effort to put together. If you found this useful and would like to help me create more content like this like you can support me below – I really appreciate it!

### Jetboard Joust Devlog #83 – Somethin’ Fishy Goin’ On…

God, these big enemies are hard!

I thought six days on the last one was extreme but this one has taken me pretty much eight full days. Probably over 50% of that time spent on the art. Basically these have pretty much morphed into ‘miniboss’ type creatures with multiple attack patterns (and in this case even spawning smaller enemies) which was never my intention but I feel like I have to kind of go with the flow. I am really struggling with motivation now though, this project is dragging on and on and ON and to be spending so much time on one thing at this late stage is extremely demoralising. I need to be earn some sodding money. Enough of my moaning though…

I decided to make this enemy a giant deep sea fish as deep sea creatures are weird, alien and creepy looking and have already been used for inspiration on some of the other enemies such as the squocket. My main source of inspiration was a fish called the fangtooth which seemed to have the right balance between looking weird and dangerous whilst maintaining an iconic fishy shape. I’m calling it the ‘snapper’.

Creating the basic shape in pixelart wasn’t too difficult and I didn’t go down nearly as many dead-ends as I did with the stinger so the process, whilst just as time-consuming, wasn’t nearly as frustrating. Most of the time I always felt like I was making progress. The scales were the hardest part to get right – it’s large area to cover and it’s tough to get the balance right. Not enough detail and things look flat and boring, too much detail and things look too ‘photographic’ and don’t gel with the rest of the game’s style. When the scales were defined as a simple filled pattern they looked too ‘flat’, like I’d obviously filled a stencilled area. If I applied too much shading to them they almost looked too ‘3D’ and ‘realistic’. In the end I offset the scales based on a pattern of concentric circles to give a slightly rounder shape to the body, limited myself to three different scale tones and didn’t allow a change of tone within an individual scale. This took forever but it finally seemed to give me the right degree of detail whilst maintaining a sense of stylised simplicity.

I thought the teeth and gills would be hard to draw but actually those parts came together really quickly, as did the ‘skull’ for the zombie attack phase. The spikes on the spine were rather more finicky and still need a bit of tidying up.

The other reason this took so long was that collision detection on an enemy of this size gets rather more complex. When I began work on the game I didn’t have ‘boss’ type enemies in mind so assumed I could implement a simple ‘one size fits all’ collision detection system. Unfortunately this doesn’t cut it when you have enemies that are complex shapes, some areas that act as ‘hot spots’ for damage, and other areas that you may want to collide with the player but not actually take damage themselves. I needed to find a way to allow for all this whilst avoiding having to go back and redo old code (particularly checking all the weapons again).

In the end I came up with a ‘CollisionProxy’ class. A CollisionProxy is spawned from a parent (the main sprite) and will both take and inflict damage on behalf of its parent (or not depending on the configuration). It also renders with a custom shader in sync with its parent when taking damage. Any sprite can have any number of proxies. So far this system seems to work well and I’ve hardly had to change any of my core code to implement it.

There’s also polygon-based collision detection on this enemy. Up until now I have been able to get away with simple rectangle-based collision detection. Thankfully I had already implemented SAT-based collision detection for convex polygons when I first ported my game engine to MonoGame so I had no extra work to do there – Thank God!! I think trying to add something like that at this stage would probably have killed me!

In its final(?) incarnation the snapper has three attack phases…

Stage One
Tracks the player fairly slowly. Unleashes either an aggressive charge/snap attack or spawns electric jellyfish from its mouth. Its jaws do more damage than the rest of its body and it will only take damage if you fire directly into its mouth (this was a PITA to implement collision-wise).

Stage Two
Loses its flesh and becomes a steampunk zombie fish. In this mode tracking of the player is faster and it’s two mounted ‘shredder‘ weapons are armed and fully dangerous. You need to destroy the engine mounted on its side to proceed to the next phase.

Stage Three
Now on its last legs (if it had any) the snapper tracks the player very quickly. It’s only defence at this point is a very aggressive kamikaze charge attack.

And that, at last, is it. Painful, but I think it was probably worth it. I’ve had some of the best feedback for the game so far from some of these images on Twitter. There’s still a few things I’m not 100% happy with. Art-wise the final phase needs some more engineering where the engine used to be and I might try getting rid of the eyeball on the zombie skull and replacing with a more skull-like eye socket. The second phase is also a bit weird – at the moment the whole enemy can take damage but it recharges until the engine is destroyed (so there’s a separate health meter for the engine). This is confusing. I should probably have the main enemy not take damage at this point and only have a health meter for the engine.

The difficulty will need some tweaking but I’ll have to do that in the context of the game more. Generally, I must admit, I am not a big fan of boss fights as they are often done so badly. In my opinion a good boss fight should seem ridiculously tough at first but be relatively straightforward once you’ve worked out a strategy. You shouldn’t die before you’ve even had a chance to get a decent look at the boss and it shouldn’t be a schlep to get there on every retry either. Though I thoroughly enjoyed both Dark Souls and Demon Souls to the point of obsession I found the ‘rinse and repeat’ style run to the bosses immensely tedious. I gave up at the final boss on both games because of this – life was simply too short! The bosses in this game will be optional and protect hefty rewards/upgrades rather than blocking your progress in the game.

I also still need to add some larger explosions befitting an enemy of this size!!

Dev Time: 8 days
Total Dev Time: approx 179 days

Fours Days Of Pixel-Pushing In Fifteen Seconds

Fun With Collision Proxies

Entering The Zombie Phase
```
```

Whoops – I Accidentally Added Boss Battles!

### Jetboard Joust Devlog #81 – On A Roll!

In the late 1970s, when kids played with proper toys rather than tablets and smartphones, there was this marvellous toy called ‘BigTrak‘. I always wanted one, but they were way too expensive to buy and probably cost around £10k per year in batteries. I’m sure the reason there’s so many SUVs on the roads today is that all these 40-something-yr-old men are buying them as some kind of mid-life BigTrak substitute. I still think the BigTrak design looks pretty cool even today.

This enemy, the ‘crawler’, was very much inspired by BigTrak, but it wasn’t just a nod to seventies nostalgia. At the moment gameplay seems to gravitate very much towards the top of the screen and I wanted something other than pickups to take the player closer to the ground and amongst the buildings. A ground-based enemy seemed the logical choice to do this.

Usually I’d work on the art first but in this case I thought I’d run a few code tests first to see if the ‘tank’ type enemy I had planned had any kind of hope of succeeding. Maths is not my strong point, and as this vehicle would have to perform the impossible feat of traversing vertical slopes and 90° changes of gradient I needed to make sure it wasn’t going to look like arse before I wasted loads of time on the art.

To my surprise my initial tests worked very well. There’s no ‘physics’ at play here, the wheels (working independently) simply traverse the outer edge of the terrain in the most basic way. I then work out the angle between the wheels (i.e. the axle) and place and orientate the chassis based on this. It’s not physically ‘correct’ by any means as the distance between the wheels changes depending on the terrain but, as it’s performing impossible feats anyway, I didn’t think this mattered – I could get away with a telescopic axle! In the final version I added something to make the wheels roll more nicely around corners but other than that I stuck with my first approach, I made a couple of attempts to make things more ‘realistic’ but both ended up looking worse than the original.

Satisfied that I could make this work I then began work on the art. There were two keys things I had to bear in mind here. Firstly, the design needed to be such that the distance between the wheels could change without looking ridiculous as described above, and secondly that the vehicle could travel in either direction. I think you can get away with simply flipping sprites for left/right when they’re small but with larger sprites like this that approach can look pretty ropey.

At first I was working on a ‘tank’ type idea that was similar to BigTrak. I spent several hours on this but wasn’t happy with anything I came up with. Everything looked too clunky or too much like a motorbike. So I started experimenting with some radical changes and in the ended settled on a kind of armoured ‘push me/pull you’ design that I felt worked much better. It’s a complex affair though, the final unit comprises eleven different sprites, so getting these all lined up and positioned correctly was a very fiddly business!

Getting the guns to track the player was also fairly tortuous as one has to consider the rotation of the vehicle as well as the previous rotation of the gun to make things work smoothly. People with more of a maths brain probably find this stuff easy. I don’t, but I got there in the end.

The AI wasn’t simple either. For individual vehicles it’s pretty straightforward, but when they appeared in batches I was getting issues (as with the Squocket enemy) of them overlapping too much. In the end I created a ‘hive mind’ class that acts as a controller for a bunch of vehicles. This class works out the ideal positioning of each vehicle and then the individual vehicles track to this position.

Lastly I have the pilots of the vehicle man jetboards and make a last-ditch attempt to attack the player when their vehicle is destroyed. There’s a specific class for this type of enemy too (I’m calling it the Kamikaze) but it’s pretty much one of the basic minions with tweaked parameters.

EDIT: Aaarggh – I thought I was done but whilst working on some screengrabs for this post I ran into a hideous bug to do with the world wrapping (remember I talked about that here?). I was getting all sorts of problems caused by the vehicle wrapping at a different time to any of the buildings it was in contact with. Very difficult to find a solution for this so in the end I’ve settled on a bit of a hack whereby the vehicle stops moving if it’s very close to the edge of the world. This seems to work OK and I don’t think it will be too obvious in practice.

So, the most complex enemy to date but I’m pleased with the end result. I think I only really need a couple more like this and I can move on…

Dev Time: 4 days
Total Dev Time: approx 166 days

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Abandoned Art Direction – ‘Tank’

The Finished Design – ‘Push Me/Pull You’
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Guns Tracking Player And A Nicer Rolling Action Round Corners

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Using A Variety Of Weapons To Dispatch Two Crawlers (Enlarged 150%)

### Jetboard Joust Devlog #79 – Space Invaders

In my last post I wrote about maybe recycling the old ‘Evil Mother’ enemy into something based on the classic ‘Space Invaders‘ aliens, and that’s exactly what I’ve ended up doing!

I like the idea of including a few homages to the classic arcade shooters of yesteryear in Jetboard Joust, and as ‘Space Invaders’ was really the granddaddy of them all it’s an obvious choice. I wasn’t sure whether the formation/movement of the invaders would work within the horizontal/scrolling format of Jetboard Joust but, with a few tweaks, it actually seemed to work out pretty well.

It wasn’t too tricky to code either. I was worried that get the whole batch of invaders to move together around buildings and stuff would be a pain but it was pretty straightforward in the end.

What I do is move all the invaders as a batch rather than treating them as individual sprites. Collision detections are still handled individually and, when an invader collides with a building, it sends a message back to the batch telling it to change direction. When the batch is initiated I make sure it doesn’t take up more vertical space than the space between the highest building and the top of the screen so I know it’s never going to get stuck.

Probably the trickiest thing was deciding how to treat a batch of invaders when attacked by the ‘Gravity Hammer‘ weapon. Moving the whole batch at once would just look dumb so I needed a way of having individual enemies break formation when hammered and then return to the appropriate position once they recover.

To achieve this I have a property for each invader that stores its location within the batch separate from its position on screen. If the invader is forced to break formation it is relatively simple for it to return to its batch position. Though it wasn’t strictly necessary I also decided to have individual invaders track horizontally with the batch even when hammered (so only their vertical position is displaced). It just seemed to look better this way.

In keeping with the original I have the invader’s speed and rate of fire increase as individual invaders are destroyed.

Dev Time: 1 day
Total Dev Time: approx 160 days

Admit It – You’ve Always Wanted To Play ‘Space Invaders’ With A Flamethrower!
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Using The Plasma Rifle To Dispense With A Batch Of Invaders

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```

### Jetboard Joust Devlog #78 – Return of the Evil Mothers

Too long since the last update. Had a lot of shit on – decided to fight a parking ticket issued by one of those fascist private parking companies and it ended up in court. I beat the tossers but it took so much time preparing the defence and everything I’m not sure if it was worth it, just did it on principle really as I don’t like scammers or bullies. Turns out these scumbags didn’t even have the right to operate on the land on which the ticket was issued in the first place!

Anyway, back on topic, the first major ‘new’ enemy is actually an ‘old’ enemy redone, but I don’t think there’s any shame in that. If you’ve been following this for some time you may remember the ‘Evil Mother‘ enemy. Well, I’d come to the conclusion that this enemy just wasn’t big enough and would work better (and make more sense) as some kind of mini mothership that spilled out its occupants when destroyed.

So I spent quite some time designing a kind of ‘bathysphere’ type craft. It’s actually several different sprites in one, the ship itself, the pilot, the ‘antennae’ on the top which acts as a weapon, plus the various lights. I’m pretty pleased with the result though a little worried it looks a bit too ‘2D’ and could do with some more shading or something to make it appear more ’rounded’.

I also increased the size of the enemies that spill out when the craft is destroyed and spent quite some time working on a much improved bullet that tracks the player’s movement in a similar way to the Limpet Mine. There’s also a ‘tell’ that the ship is going to fire as you can see the antennae at the top charging up.

The shaking effect is achieved by applying an offset to the ships position each frame. These offsets are always evenly distributed and chosen at random so it’s a very predictable type of brownian motion.

I think I’m going to use the original enemy design as more of a ‘swarm’ type enemy with a movement type that’s an homage to the original Space Invaders!

Dev Time: 3 days
Total Dev Time: approx 159 days

Final Artwork And Fire Animation
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### Jetboard Joust Devlog #71 – (Black) Hole In One!

This was the first weapon that I really didn’t have much of a clue what I was going for when I started it and, ironically, it’s probably turned out to be the one I’m most pleased with!

When I set up the placeholder for this one ages ago it was called ‘Storm Bringer’ and I had an idea it was going to involve some kind of ‘particle storm’ type effect, a bit like those fireworks you get that fire out a ton of different sparks that go off in different directions.

However, I’ve already changed the ‘Spreader‘ weapon to be called ‘Particle Storm’ and, as that now does something very similar to what I intended this weapon to do, differentiating this weapon proved difficult.

I tried a series of variations with a bunch of particles moving in a constrained and stuttery ‘Brownian Motion’ type manner but this all looked shite and, to be honest, given that I’ve done so many of these weapons now I was beginning to feel like I was running out of ideas and motivation.

Then came a random source of inspiration. In my very skunkworks home studio I have a rack for audio gear that I’ve cobbled together over the years from various shitty pieces of Ikea furniture and stuff. In an attempt to make this more uniform (as nothing matched and my workmanship was so terrible) I covered the entire piece with Jack Kirby art from a bunch of old Spiderman and Fantastic Four comics I had as a kid.

On one small section of this there’s an image of a character disappearing into a kind of black hole, the image is drawn in negative and looks really striking. I had vaguely considered a weapon called ‘Black Hole’ (though I was worried it would be too similar to the ‘Sonic Boom‘) so I decided, largely out of desperation, to try switching the particles I was using to very dark circles with a light outline. I thought this would look ridiculous but, to my surprise, it actually looked kind of cool!

It’s not a single black hole though, so I hit upon the concept of a weapon that fires a series of mini black holes that suck the life force from enemies. Stephen Hawking would probably turn in his grave but I liked the idea. I’m calling it the ‘Black Hole Blaster’ which, thankfully, just about fits in the space I’ve reserved for weapon names in the HUD!

I worked on this ‘negative space’ effect some more, adding a layering system to my particle code so that I could draw all the white outlines ‘behind’ the black circles, this gave the effect of a unified black mass with a white outline which looked much better than a bunch of circles overlaid. As usual there was a lot of tweaking and messing around here (I didn’t really have any point of reference for the effect I was trying to create other than that one comicbook panel) but I’ve ended up with something I think works.

There’s five layers of particles in the final version two sets of black circles with light outlines (one smaller than the other) and the concentric circles you see overlaid which (I think) help to give the impression of some kind of black hole rather than simply black smoke. It was difficult to get these concentric circles subtle enough to suggest ‘black hole’ without overwhelming things, I had to do a lot of messing around with the frequency and distribution of them. It’s possible that I’ve erred to much on the side of caution and could do with a few more of them. It does look a bit like some kind of weird satanic flamethrower but I don’t think that’s necessarily a bad thing!

Lastly, whilst working on the collision detection (which was very straightforward) I thought it might be a nice touch if these mini black holes exerted a small gravitational force, actually sucking enemies towards them. This was pretty fiddly to code, and my initial version was ludicrously powerful, but it did seem to work and help to differentiate this weapon nicely from some of the others.

So I think I’m pretty much done with this one now. I’m really pleased with it, both in the way it looks, but also for the fact I’ve never seen a weapon quite like it in any other game (though some smartarse will no doubt point one out to me)!

Only two weapons left to go!!

Dev Time: 2 days
Total Dev Time: approx 140.5 days

The Jack Kirby Panel That became My Inspiration

An Early Draft Of The Weapon

The Final(ish) Version

Too Much Suction!

Black Hole Dogfight!

### Jetboard Joust Devlog #68 – Ray Of Hope!

I felt the latest weapon deserved a post to itself as it took a bit longer than the others and I’m particularly pleased with the result.

It’s called the ‘Gamma Ray’ and I was deliberately going for a kind of retro 50s sci-fi vibe with it. As with the bulk of the weapons (probably more so), there’s actually very little to coding the mechanics of it – probably around 90% of the development time here was spent on the visuals.

The ‘ray’ effect is all created with a custom shader. At its heart it’s an approximated sine wave (calculated using the smoothstep algorithm) – to get it looking more ‘electric’ I vary the amplitude of the wave at random each cycle.

I had a lot of issues finding a technique for generating random numbers in HLSL that I was happy with. I tried out a couple of algorithmic solutions but none of these seemed to look much good to me. In the end I used a second texture as a ‘noise’ lookup table, I created this texture myself by rendering to a RenderTarget2D in MonoGame so I could be sure the ‘noise’ was perfectly distributed. I’ll probably write a simple tutorial post on this subject and include some PNGs with different type of randomness.

I didn’t like using a consistent wavelength for the shader as it seemed to make things too uniform so I tried varying the wavelength per frame. This looked much better but I ran into an issue where the ‘end’ of the ray looked weird if it didn’t taper out to a point, which it wouldn’t do when there wasn’t an exact number of wave cycles across the length of ray.

I tried fading out the end to get around this – this worked OK but not great and looked weird when the ray ‘collided’ with enemies or buildings. In the end I settled on a solution whereby I taper out both the amplitude and ‘stroke width’ of the wave to zero, this seems to work fine and, even with a fractional amount of cycles, the ray now always tapers out to a nice point!

Lastly I applied a raster effect to the wave (again in HLSL) and overlaid two different rays with wavelengths cycling at different rates. The wavelength of both waves in tweened using a ‘Bounce’ tween algorithm so it seems to cycle regularly but in a fairly non-linear fashion.

The concentric circles at the muzzle of the gun and at the point the ray hits something are created using the geometric shaders I discuss here, though I’ve added a raster effect and a gradual fade out.

Dev Time: 2 days
Total Dev Time: approx 134.5 days

One Of The First Drafts Of The Raygun Shader

The Finished Raygun Effect

The Gamma Ray In Action

Gamma Ray vs Particle Storm

### Jetboard Joust Devlog #63 – Geometric Pixel Shader Tutorial

Been spending the last couple of days working on some geometric pixel shaders that I can use for various in game lighting effects to further juice up my explosions etc.

These may well be of use to others so I thought I’d get them into a serviceable state and do a mini-tutorial on their usage. OK, maybe ‘tutorial’ is too grand a word but I’ve commented the code thoroughly at least! Links to the HLSL source files for these shaders are included at the bottom of this article (scroll down).

I’m assuming the reader has a basic knowledge of HLSL – if not then there’s an excellent introductory tutorial here.

The shaders provided both draw a user-defined number of concentric shapes. The stroke width and spacing between the shapes can be set via user-defined parameters, as can the amount the spacing and stroke width increases at each iteration.

A parameter ‘multiply_increments’ allows the user to set whether the spacing/stroke width increment as applied linearly (by addition) or exponentially (by multiplication).

The supplied texture is used to draw the shapes (I often use a 2×2 white square), a user-defined tint can be applied to this.

All sizes, widths etc are calculated as a proportion of the texture size so usually between 0.0f and 1.0f though you can go larger than 1.0f if you wish some of your outer shape to be drawn outside of the texture (and therefore cropped).

Setting the shader parameters from your .net code would look something like the code below. Adjust these parameters over time to get the kind of trippy effects you see in some of the example GIFs. Maybe you could smooth these parameter changes using LERPing?

// The tint that will be applied to the texture – set all values
// to 1.0 to leave the texture untouched
Microsoft.Xna.Framework.Vector4 tint;
tint.W = 1.0f; // alpha – 0.0f – 1.0f
tint.X = 1.0f; // red – 0.0f – 1.0f
tint.Y = 1.0f; // green – 0.0f – 1.0f
tint.Z = 1.0f; // blue – 0.0f – 1.0f

// The size of the first shape to be drawn

// The stroke width of the first shape to be drawn

// The initial spacing between shapes

// The number of shapes

// The amount by which spacing increases for each consecutive shape drawn

// The amount by which stroke width increases for each consecutive shape drawn

// Whether the spacing/stroke width increment as applied linearly (by addition)
// or exponentially (by multiplication).

SpriteBatch.Begin (…);
SpriteBatch.End (…);

Probably also worth mentioning are the settings required to get the ‘endless loop’ effect you see in these GIFs. It’s pretty straightforward if the spacing and stroke width of shapes is consistent, but if not you need to tween the strokewidth and spacing so that they are the same for the second shape at the end of the loop as they were for the first shape at the start of the loop. It took me a while to get my head round this.

The code below shows some example values – don’t try and cut/paste this as it uses my own tweening classes and a wrapper class for the shader itself. It should be good enough to get an idea of how to set things up though…

// Initial stroke width relative to texture size
float width = 0.0025f;

// My wrapper class for the shader

// Used by my wrapper class – the size I’m drawing the texture on screen

// Set up initial spacing and stroke width for the shader

// Spacing and stroke width will increase by 50% for each concentric shape drawn

// Sets up the values to tween the size of the outer shape over a 30 frame seamless loop
// First two values are the start and end size

// Sets up the values to tween the spacing over a 30 frame seamless loop
// First two values are the start and end spacing

// Sets up the values to tween the stroke width over a 30 frame seamless loop
// First two values are the start and end stroke width

And here are the actual HLSL source files. Note that I am pretty much a beginner at this stuff myself so I make no guarantees as to the suitability of this code for any purpose and I would welcome any contributions towards making it execute more efficiently.

I have plans to add more shape types at a later stage and combine these into one uber-shader that also also shapes to be combined in different ways. Watch this blog for updates…

If this is of use to you I’d welcome more followers on Twitter.

Dev Time: 2 days
Total Dev Time: approx 123 days

### Jetboard Joust Devlog #54 – Smoke & Mirrors

For the past few days I’ve been working on adding some more ‘juice’ to Jetboard Joust – the sort of small details that don’t really add anything to gameplay per se but, when combined, add an awful lot to game feel (hopefully).

I’ll go over most of these in a separate post but one element seemed to deserve a post of it’s own – smoke.

I wanted to add smoke as a way of increasing a sense of ‘permanence’ to the combat. Explosions are over and done in less than a second but smoke could hang around for ten seconds or so and build up depending on how much destruction is going on.

I wasn’t after a ‘realistic’ smoke effect but something more stylised to fit in with the rest of the game art. It seemed logical to use circles as the base for the effect but I felt pretty sure I’d want these circles to increase in size over time, maybe quite dramatically, so I didn’t want to rely on scaling sprites for this. I decided to use custom shaders instead as this should give me much more control.

So the first step was to use a custom shader to draw a simple filled circle. Initially I thought the geometry behind this would be quite complex but, in fact, it’s just simple pythagoras. Here’s the approach in pseudo code…

// get coordinates relative to centre of circle
float x = 0.5-coords.x;
float y = 0.5-coords.y;

// fill the entire space

{
// return a color
}
else
{
}

…I’d be lying if I said I got to this stage quickly though! Though it didn’t take me long to figure out the maths, I spent far too long passing the shader a region of a texture to draw rather than the entire texture and getting confused as to why my results were all off (forgetting that coords.x and coords.y are relative to the entire texture to be drawn, not the region). When I started passing a simple 2×2 image to the texture everything clicked into place.

Once I’d successfully drawn a filled circle it was pretty easy to expand that technique to draw concentric rings and the like, and to animate these by basing their radii on parameters that are passed to the shader and change each frame.

Next step was to find a way of applying motion to these circles that looked suitably smoke-like. I started by simple applying a uniform velocity to several circles distributed across a certain range, e.g. -60d to +60d, as well as increasing the circles size over time.

When I finally got this to work the way I intended it didn’t look too bad as a starting point so I added a couple more parameters to make things more interesting – a ‘deceleration’ parameter (so that the velocity of the circles decayed over time), and a ‘buoyancy’ parameter (so that the circles gradually floated upwards over time). I also decreased the opacity of the circles over time so that they gradually faded out.

This looked much better but the results were still far too uniform, forming very obvious geometric patterns as the circles intersected. To stop this I added a certain amount of randomisation to both the circles initial velocity and their ‘buoyancy’ – this produced a much more smoke-like effect – still stylised but not overly ‘geometric’.

I was almost there now but felt that the smoke cloud was dissipating too quickly and lacked some kind of ‘weight’ to it’s centre. I fixed this by adding additional batches of circles with a decreasing initial spread and velocity with the final one staying pretty much in the same place. This looked a lot better.

Lastly I experimented with adding pixelation to the shader so that the circles were drawn at the ‘game’ pixel resolution rather than the ‘screen’ pixel resolution. Unfortunately I felt this looked pretty crappy – one of those things that ‘should’ have worked but didn’t! So I left things as they were but I did add a gradually increasing amount of pixelation over time so that when the circles have pretty much faded out they kind of ‘dissolve’ out rather than just disappearing.

Actually I couldn’t stop there – I thought the centre of the smoke cloud looked too ‘solid’ to start with so added a small particle effect to imitate ash or something. It’s subtle but it just breaks things up a little.

I’m pretty happy with the final result – watch this space for a mini-tutorial on using shaders to draw geometric shapes. I think I might end up using that technique again in this game…

Dev Time: 1.5 days
Total Dev Time: approx 97.5 days

Successfully Drawing Circles With HLSL

First Attempt At Multiple Circles – An Interesting Fail!

Starting To Look More Smoke-Like But Still Too Geometric

Adding Some Randomisation For A More Natural Effect

The Final Shader With Pixel Dissolve

The Final Smoke Effect In Game

### Jetboard Joust Devlog #49 – Gun Control

This week I’ve added a couple of extra jetboarding enemies and a new weapon – and I think I have enough content now for a playable demo! Just need to to sort the main menu out (groan) add a few more sound fx and (probably) background music. Here’s a bit more about the new stuff that’s been added…

The Gatling Gun
In operation this is really like a rapid-fire pistol, therefore it was pretty easy to subclass the existing ‘pistol’ weapon and change a few parameters to get it working. The hardest thing was getting the recoil to feel right – I wanted enough recoil for it to feel slightly ‘out of control’ and unwieldy but (obviously) not enough to be unplayable. I’ve given it a slightly lower damage-per-bullet than the pistol but this is more than made up for by the rapid firing.

Improved Shotgun Blast
One thing I realised whilst playtesting was that the existing shotgun blast was just nuking everything within its range rather than taking account of the fact that some enemies would shield others from the blast. Fixing this accurately seemed like it would be a mathematical nightmare (I’m not too strong on geometry) but I managed to implement a slightly ‘fuzzy’ solution which I think will be good enough. What I do is order all the enemies that intersect the blast region by their distance from the gun barrel. I then iterate through them in order creating a vertical ‘blocked zone’ for each one based on the combined height of the previous enemies in the list. If more than 50% of the current enemy intersects this ‘blocked zone’ I assume it has been shielded from the blast.

The Assassin
This type of enemy is pretty similar to the omnipresent ‘minion’ only they don’t try and abduct babies, they just go all out for attacking the player. This enemy uses the ‘skullhead’ sprite that I’d already designed and required no additional AI work (just adjusting existing parameters) so it was really easy to get up and running, unlike the next one…

The Bodyguard
Bodyguards have a pretty specific AI in that their main aim in life is to protect other enemies that are in the process of baby-snatching. I thought this would be pretty simple to get working but it was a lot harder than I thought to get something that looked decent. This is the basic framework of rules I ended up with…

– Bodyguards seek out the closest baby-snatcher to protect
– Once a bodyguard gets close enough to protect someone they’ll never desert them
– Only two bodyguards can protect a baby-snatcher at one time
– If there’s more than one bodyguard protecting a baby-snatcher they’ll stand guard on opposite sides
– Bodyguards never stray to far horizontally from the baby-snatcher they;re protecting but they will move vertically to attack the player

…there’s a bit more to it than that but these are the key AI decisions that are made. Bodyguards have a lot of health but move relatively slowly and I’ve tried to design the sprite to reflect this, hence they look rather ‘chunky’ compared to the other jetboarding enemies.

I haven’t fully playtested all this yet but will be doing so over the next few days as I add the outstanding audio fx.

Dev Time: 3 days
Total Dev Time: approx 83 days

Whoops – Too Much Recoil On The Gatling Gun

The Final Gatling Gun In Action

The Magic Shotgun – Enemies Should Shield Each Other!

Fixing The Magic Shotgun

Trying To get The Bodyguard Looking A Bit More ‘Hench’!

Bodyguards Doing What They’re Paid To Do

Assassin Enemies Wielding Gatling Guns – Beware!